Aurelius Augustinus (354-430), Bishop of Hippo (Mediterranean Africa) and Church Father.  If his references to art or to memory should seem anachronistic, the reader must remember that our classics still speak to us in human voices.  

Whittaker Chambers (1902-1961) makes these remarks on p. 25 of Witness (1952).

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43), Roman statesman and major intermediary of Greek philosophy for the Western world.  His first letter to Professor Worthy seems quite dependent on his Tusculan Disputations II,67.

Cleanthes is said to be the founder, Chrysippus the formulator of the Stoic school of philosophers.  Cicero, who popularized Stoicism, probably singles out these two not for their philosophy, but for their pedantic and categorical formularism.

Cleopatra VII (69-30), Queen of Egypt and "Queen of the Kings" of the Ptolmaic dynasty, descended from Alexander the Great.

Ernst Robert Curtius:  "Philologie als Erkenntnis: das war es, was ich in jenem Augenblick begriff. Und seitdem habe ich mir vor eigenen und fremden Arbeiten immer wieder die Frage gestellt: 'Was ist damit für die Erkenntnis geleistet?'"  Philology as knowledge:  that was the concept I gained in that moment.  Since that day I have repeatedly asked the question of my own work, and that of others:  what is the contribution to knowledge?  Mark Williams of Calvin College called our attention to this remark.

Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832), scientist and historian of science best known for poetic works.  Also a distinguished statesman and political theoretician.  He came upon the literary scene (1773) with a brash, reactionary play based upon the life of a sixteenth-century robber baron, Gottfried von Berlichingen.  Like others in his century a prolific letter writer, he often used identical passages in more than one letter, as here from a letter to Barthold Gottfried Niebuhr.  One of his letters to Professor Worthy seems to come directly from an Essay which the reader may further pursue in the Leopoldina edition of his scientific works (1. Abt., 10, 118 ff.)  The Historischer Teil of his Farbenlehre, published (1810) over a quarter century before Whewell's better known History of the Inductive Sciences is an early effort in the sociology of science, predecessor to Thomas Kuhn's more popular work.  

Deuteronomy 25:5-10 lays down the Levirate assurance that surviving male relatives must "awaken the seed" of their deceased kinsman for his widow.  Ruth is sometimes cited as an illustration, but surely the most striking example is in the direct line of our Lord, Tamar, mother of Perez by Judah.

The Luther quotation used by Goethe is in the great Weimar edition of the Tischreden, I,330,15-16.

Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) published Die Logik der Forschung (Vienna, 1935), where he enunciated his Prinzip der Verfälschung.

John Wesley (1703-1791), founder of Methodism.

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